As the impact of climate change is inevitable, and some of the impacts may even be irreversible, adapting to climate change has become an important part of the response to climate change (Figure 1). In fact, it was not until the release of the IPCC’s third assessment report (IPCC, 2001a) that the topic of adaptation received sufficient attention. The “Bali Action Plan” (Bali Action Plan) adopted by the Bali Liantian Climate Change Conference in December 2007 included adaptation to climate change as an important part of it.
In order to seek advantages and avoid disadvantages and achieve sustainable economic, social and environmental development, many countries have begun to formulate national strategies to adapt to climate change in recent years.
–Japan. Since 46% of Japan’s population, 47% of industrial output value, and 77% of commercial sales are concentrated in the coastal zone, the sea level rise caused by climate change directly threatens Japan’s social and economic life. Therefore, Japan has proposed important adaptations to climate change. Selected country. In the early days, the main focus was on the construction of coastal dikes and the consolidation of ports (Japan National Institute of Environmental Research, 2001). Recently, due to urbanization, climate warming and the heat island effect, Japan’s electricity and energy consumption has increased. Accordingly, Japan’s energy efficiency has been improved, the proportion of renewable energy has been increased, and the consumption of energy, electricity, and fresh water resources have also been reduced. Climate change response measures that simultaneously address both mitigation and adaptation (Ge Quansheng et al., 2009).
-European Union. In June 2007, the European Commission (European Commission) issued a policy green paper on adaptation to climate change, “Adapting to Climate Change in Europe-Options for EU Action” (Adapting to Climate Change in Europe-Options for EU Action). Adaptation strategies usually focus on flood management and defense. Other adaptation actions include: water demand management, natural disaster risk management, strengthening infrastructure, land use management and spatial planning, urban greening, ecosystem management, health action plans, health System planning, etc. (Ge Quansheng et al., 2009). In April 2009, the European Commission further released the “White Paper Adapting to Climate Change: Towards a European Framework for Ac-tion” to improve the EU’s ability to respond to the impact of climate change.
–Australia. In April 2007, the Council of Australian Govern-ments (COAG) issued the National Climate Change Adaptation Framework (National Climate Change Adaptation Framework), which aims to strengthen the ability of key departments and regions to deal with the impact of climate change and reduce vulnerability Construction, especially in areas such as water resources, biodiversity, coastal areas, and agriculture.
–U.K. In June 2008, the Scottish Government released “Adapting Our Ways: Managing Scotland’s Climate Risk” (Adapting Our Ways: Managing Scotland’s Climate Risk). In July 2008, the British government issued the “Adapting to Climate Change in England” (Adapting to Climate Change in England), incorporating adaptation into policies, plans and systems at the national, regional and local levels (Ge Quansheng et al., 2009). Scotland’s adaptation plan puts forward strategic principles, such as: adaptation must be carried out through actions that build resilience, adaptation should continuously respond to new information, adaptation should be incorporated into people’s conventional development and implementation practices, and adaptation needs to be carried out on an appropriate scale. Integrate and involve relevant decision-making levels, and adaptation must be equally important to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
–Russia. Climate change has beneficial effects on Russia’s social economy, such as improved environmental comfort, increased agricultural production, and extended shipping periods. However, the negative impacts and higher uncertainties such as increased flooding and increased infrastructure security risks have also increased. Its adaptive countermeasures to respond to climate change mainly include: building a hydrological and meteorological event monitoring, prediction, early warning and prevention system to cope with the increasing challenges of flood disasters; carrying out maintenance measures such as foundation reinforcement as needed in frozen soil areas; The increase in temperature will strengthen the monitoring and early warning capacity building of high temperature events; expand and open up new agricultural planting areas based on suitable planting areas (Meleshko VP, Kattsov VM, Mirvis VM, et al., 2008).
–India. Because India’s economy is closely linked to its natural resources, it is more susceptible to climate change. Rapid urbanization and industrialization, as well as climate change, put tremendous pressure on the ecological environment and socio-economic system (Ge Quansheng et al., 2009). In response to the vulnerability of climate change, the Indian government has formulated an action plan to improve the ability to adapt to climate change (Government of India, 2008). It mainly targets water shortage expectations and uses price and other regulatory measures to improve the efficiency of freshwater resource utilization; set up a special plan, Protect the ecosystem of the Himalayas and its ecological value; cultivate crop varieties with strong climate adaptability, etc.
–America. On February 26, 2009, the US National Research Council issued a report “Restructuring Federal Climate Research to Meet the Challenges of Climate Change”. The report focuses the research on global change on extreme weather and climate events, sea level rise and glacier melting, freshwater supply, agriculture and food security, management of ecosystems, human health, and the impact on the U.S. economy, and other adaptive planning issues. .
——Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). In August 2009, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Environment Policy Committee (Environment Policy Committee) and the Development Assistance Committee (Development Assis-tance Committee) completed the “Integrating Climate Change Adaptation Policy Guidance for Development Cooperation.” Adaptation into Development Cooperation: Policy Guidance) report.
——The World Bank. On September 30, 2009, the World Bank released the report “The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change: New Methods and Estimates” (draft).