–U.K. Regarding the research and practice of climate change, low-carbon cities and urban planning, the United Kingdom is undoubtedly leading the world, especially in the national planning policy guidelines, regarding sustainable development planning and climate change planning policies, from planning preparation and implementation , Public participation, implementation feedback and many other manpower, systematic and comprehensive. In 2003, the British government issued an energy white paper-“The Future of Our Energy: Creating a Low-Carbon Economy”, which clearly proposed the development of a “low-carbon economy” for the first time. In order to promote the transition to a low-carbon economy in the UK as soon as possible, the British government established the Carbon-Trust. The Carbon-Trust and the Energy Conservation Foundation (EST) jointly promote the UK’s Low Carbon Cities Programme (Low Carbon Cities Programme). , LCCP). The first batch of three demonstration cities (Bristol, Leeds, Manchester), with the expert and technical support provided by LCCP, formulated a city-wide low-carbon city plan “British Model-Urban Action to Address Climate Change”, which has since started. The prelude to the development of low-carbon cities. In 2007, the United Kingdom announced the “Draft Climate Change Bill” (Draft Climate Change Bill). In November 2008, the British Parliament passed the Climate Change Act (Climate Change Act), proposing to reduce British CO2 emissions by 26% from 1990 levels by 2020 and at least 80% from 1990 levels by 2050. %. The British government has made it clear that carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced by 60% in 2050. The city of Aberdeen in the United Kingdom has explored the practice of low-carbon city planning. The UK Low Carbon Transition Plan: National Strategy for Climate&Energy white paper was released in 2009, and announced that by 2020, the UK’s CO2 emissions will be reduced by 18% compared to the 2008 emissions level. It is 1/3 lower than the 1990 level (Figure 1).
–Japan. From the 1950s to the 1960s, Japan’s urbanization was the fastest in the 20 years, and it was also a period when environmental hazards proliferated. Industrial water pollution and air pollution caused pain (1955), water complication (1956), Yokkaichi asthma (1960), second water complication (1965), etc., which aroused great concern among all Japanese people. After a series of pollution control and law enforcement, by the 1970s, Japan’s industrial pollution control had been greatly improved. However, with the popularization of private cars and the beginning of the era of large consumption, urban air pollution and waste have become new environmental problems. At the same time, the two world oil crises in 1973 and 1978, Japan, which has a low energy self-sufficiency rate, has a deep understanding of ensuring The importance of energy supply and energy saving. In order to effectively use energy and comprehensively manage the energy use of factories, transportation, buildings, etc., Japan passed and implemented the “Law on the Rationalization of Energy Use” in 1979. It was adopted at the Eighth World Commission on Environment and Development held in Tokyo, Japan in February 1987, and was later approved by the 42nd UN General Assembly debate. In April 1987, “Our Common Future” was officially published. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988, and the Japanese government has gradually paid attention to global environmental issues. The “Ozone Layer Protection Law” was promulgated in 1988 to restrict the use and discharge of harmful substances. In 2001, Japan’s Environment Agency was upgraded to the Ministry of the Environment and began to do a lot of work on the issue of climate change (global warming). In 2002, Japan formally concluded the “Kyoto Protocol” as an active participant. In the same year, it also revised the “Climate Change (Global Warming) Countermeasure Promotion Act” and the “Climate Change (Global Warming) Countermeasure Program.” In 2004, the Ministry of Environment of Japan initiated the “Japan Louw-Carbon Sociely Scenariostoward 2050” (Japan Louw-Carbon Sociely Scenariostoward 2050) research project. Soon after the Kyoto Protocol formally came into effect in February 2005, the Cabinet set up a “Climate Change (Global Warming) Countermeasure Promotion Department”, revised and implemented the “Climate Change (Global Warming) Countermeasure Promotion Act”, and formulated the Kyoto Protocol Goals Reach the plan.” In February 2007, Japan released the “Japan Low Carbon Society Scenarios: Feasibility Study for 2050 CO2 Emission Reduction by 70% from 1990 Levels” (Japan Low Carbon Society Scenarios: Feasibility Study for 70% CO2 Emission Reduction by 2050 below 1990 Level), proposed alternative low-carbon society models. In May 2008, the Ministry of the Environment of Japan (MOEJ) research team released the “A Dozen of Actions towards Low-Carbon Societies, LCSs”. In September 2009, the Democratic Party won the election and replaced the long-ruling Liberal Democratic Party. Although there are different guidelines and policies in many aspects, the policies on environmental issues are basically inherited or even developed. For example, Hatoyama, the first prime minister of the Democratic government, announced to the world Japan’s mid-term goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 25% by 2020 compared to 1990 in a speech at the United Nations General Assembly in New York shortly after taking office. In June 2010, the Democratic Party government formulated Japan’s “New Growth Strategy” and proposed the idea of building a world-leading “Environmental Future City” among its 21 national projects. In October of the same year, under the direct leadership of the Bureau of Regional Activation and Integration Affairs of the Cabinet Secretariat, the concept of the “Environmental Future City” was clarified: it not only included the previous environmental concepts such as low-carbon and symbiosis with nature, but also focused on responding to the aging society. “Health and Medical” and “Creation of Human-centered Social Value”, etc. In line with the Action Plan for Building a Low-Carbon Society, Japan’s low-carbon city construction after 2008 is mainly manifested in the following four aspects: ①The local government’s “Climate Change Countermeasures Implementation Plan” (Earth Warming Countermeasures Implementation Ministry’s drawing) (referred to as “Implementation”) The formulation of planning) includes two aspects: government office and business department plans and regional planning. Regarding regional planning, the law only requires prefectures, ordinance cities (19), China Nuclear City (41) and special cities (40) to be prepared. In order to encourage preparations in other places, the plan must specify medium-term and long-term reductions. Greenhouse gas emission targets and action plans. In order to help city governments prepare plans, the Ministry of the Environment has published the “Manual for the Preparation of Climate Change Countermeasures Implementation Plan” (manual for making sweet paintings for the implementation of global warming countermeasures), especially providing specific data and calculation methods to help local governments in carbon dioxide emissions. Estimate and forecast. According to statistics in 2011, in terms of government office and business, all prefectures and prefectures have completed their plans, with carbon dioxide emissions reduced by an average of 9%, and other municipalities will basically complete their plans in 2011. As far as regional planning is concerned, by the end of 2011, almost all cities that require planning will have completed planning. For those cities, towns and villages that are not required to prepare plans, 25% have completed or are planning to prepare such plans. ②The construction of environmental model city (, eco-model city). In order to improve the environmental quality while promoting the recovery of the local economy, the working group under the Cabinet of Ministers of Japan, the “Dungeon City Activation Integration Headquarters Round” began to collect environmental demonstration cities in April 2008, and its selection conditions are: substantial carbon dioxide emission reduction , Including cities with carbon dioxide emission reductions of more than 30% by 2020 and 50% by 2050; leading cities that can become role models outside of China; cities with local characteristics; residents, companies, universities, non-governmental organizations, etc. Participation and a city that has the possibility of realization; a city that is conducive to long-term development, creates local vitality, actively provides environmental education to the next generation, and is conducive to sustainable work in the future. So far, 13 cities (including Kitakyushu City, Yokohama City, Kyoto City, etc.) have been selected. The national government fully supports this, and has also established a “Low-Carbon City Promotion Association” to publicize and promote its specific activities and information. ③ Eco-city construction () support projects. Since 2008, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan has started a support project for the realization of low-carbon cities. The full name is “Leading Urban Environment Promotion Project” (a leading urban environment promotion project), which includes not only the traditional facilities of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It also includes support for the preparation of low-carbon plans, adjustments and social practices, and the use of economic support means: local public projects support half of the cost of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, and private projects support one third of the cost. . Every year, about 30 projects are selected as support objects. Compared with the above-mentioned environmental demonstration cities sponsored by the Cabinet Secretariat, the scope of this project is mainly in the city blocks, so some construction projects in environmental demonstration cities have also been selected as supporting projects. ④ Issue the “Guidelines for Low-Carbon City Construction”. From May 2008 to June of the following year, the Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism’s Urban Policy Fundamental Issues and Direction Group (Subcommittee on Urban Policy Fundamental Issues and Directions) held 10 meetings to discuss and formulate guidelines for future urban development in Japan , Its first is to develop towards “eco-compact city” (, eco-compact). Under the guidance of this policy, the Urban Planning Bureau of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism issued the “Guidelines for Low-Carbon City Construction” in August 2010. The central idea is to achieve a low-carbon intensive city structure and how to calculate the city’s carbon emissions. There is also a more detailed method guide.
-European Union. The attitude towards climate change has always been relatively positive, with emphasis on the development of low-carbon energy technologies. Recently, the European Union released the strategic energy technology plan (SET-Plan) technology roadmap (Figure 2) and investment in low-carbon technology development. Priority areas such as nuclear energy and smart cities have been planned in detail.